Arkiv for ‘Psykologi’

Is Daisy Ridley Right that Calling Rey a Mary Sue is Sexist?

Monday, February 6th, 2017

You might remember that when ‘The Force Awakens’ came out, the screenwriter Max Landis faulted the character of Rey for being a Mary Sue. A Mary Sue is a trope that is commonly seen in bad screenwriting and fanfiction. It refers to a character who, with little to no explanation, is so awesome that he or she has unrealistic and overpowered abilities that are not supposed to the movie’s own backstory; that he or she is better than all of the established characters at the things that make them unique for no apparent reason, and so on.

When Landis said Rey was a Mary Sue, many women accused him of sexism. Recently, these women have been joined by Daily Ridley herself who said that “The Mary Sue thing in itself is sexist because it’s the name of a woman. … Everyone was saying that Luke had the exact same [capabilities.] … So for me, it was just confused.”

Is Ridley right about this?

The Mary Sue trope does indeed carry the name of a woman. But there is nothing in the definition of a Mary Sue that necessitates that such a character would have to be female. If you switched Rey’s gender in ‘The Force Awakens,’ but kept everything else the same, the male Rey would also be a Mary Sue. The name itself is nothing to get hung up on. In fact, male Mary Sues are often referred to as Larry Stus and Gary Stus by screenwriters – and of course, that wouldn’t happen if Mary Sues were always women.

Ridley has a point that there is no reason that a gender-neutral screenwriting trope should be named after a woman. But if you think about it, many terms and tropes in common parlance have somewhat misleading names. Feminism, for example, is quite the misleading name for a movement that seeks to do away with gender differences. But it carries this name for historical reasons. Similarly, the Mary Sue trope carries this name because the original piece of writing that criticized the trope happened to revolve around a female character. It’s called a Mary Sue for historical reasons, not because only women can be Mary Sues – and it was actually a woman who came up with the original criticism of the Mary Sue trope.

Just like you could switch Rey’s gender to male and she’d still be a Mary Sue, so you could switch the name of the Mary Sue trope, and Rey would still be a Mary Sue. None of this has anything to do with gender. She seems to be confusing the surface phenomenon of the name with the motif that the name refers to.

Then there is Ridley’s claim that Luke Skywalker had the same capabilities as Rey, the implication being that supposedly, in a world devoid of sexism, if Rey were a Mary Sue Luke would then also be one. Ridley is right that Luke had many of the same capabilities as Rey. But she neglects to mention that Luke only had these capabilities by the third movie and after having been trained by both Obi-Wan and Yoda. Rey demonstrates abilities on par with, or better than Luke’s by the first movie and without any training. So Ridley is leaving out some preeeeeetty important details when she says Rey is no more overpowered than Luke.

Furthermore, recall that one of the features of a Mary Sue is that the character is better than all of the established characters at the things that make them unique for no apparent reason. For example, we never actually see Luke being better than Han at fixing or flying the Millennium Falcon, but that (and many other things) is just what we see with Rey, with no explanation given for her prowess.

Some people have said that maybe Anakin was a Mary Sue then, because Anakin also had many overpowered abilities that he hardly had to train to acquire. It would certainly be tempting to grant this point so that we could have a clear example of a male Mary Sue in the franchise and lay the accusations of sexism to rest. But recall another point about Mary Sues – they have overpowered abilities that are not supposed to the movie’s own backstory. Anakin had overpowered abilities, yes, but the prequels actually take care to explain that he is a virgin birth and a child of the force with a midi-chlorian count higher than Yoda’s. Now, this is also really bad screenwriting. But it isn’t the Mary Sue kind of bad – the movie does explain why Anakin has such extraordinary abilities. Nor is Anakin better than all of the established characters at everything. He is a whiny brat who needs Obi-Wan to discipline him. He needs Padme to help him understand grand scale politics. And he needs Yoda to bail him out after he gets chopped by Count Dooku.

So no – neither Luke nor Anakin are Mary Sues. But Rey invariably is. And Daisy Ridley’s arguments don’t hold up.

The Contradiction in Modern Feminism

Thursday, December 15th, 2016

Watch as video here.

On New Year’s Eve of 2015/2016, mass sexual assaults took place against women in several cities across Germany. Most famous is the incident in Cologne, where 2000 men of Middle-eastern and North African descent sexually assaulted 1200 German women.

Coordinated mass sexual assaults by men against women should be a feminist cause if there ever was one. Yet to the surprise of most Europeans, many familiar feminist bloggers, pundits and writers across northern Europe did not come out to denounce the attacks. Instead, many talked about how these mass sexual assaults were no different from what white European men do to women every weekend at clubs, how there is rape in every culture so it would be irresponsible to just single out these Middle Eastern perpetrators, and so on.

How could we have come to a point where leading European feminists cannot bring themselves to speak out against mass coordinated sexual assaults against women? The answer has to do with what we call the contraction in modern feminism.

Feminism was originally a movement rooted in the broader values of the age of enlightenment. The foundation of classical feminism was the belief that all citizens should be treated equally by the state and be able to lay claim to the same rights, privileges and responsibilities, regardless of gender. At the time when feminism was conceived, the application of this principle meant expanding women’s rights to be on par with men’s.

The values of the enlightenment were universalist and went both ways: If men had somehow been the ones to be short-changed by society, then the same principle could have been applied to further men’s causes. Enlightenment feminism wasn’t about being a man or being a woman. It was about being equals as human beings. Enlightenment values were also individualist. If certain traditions, cultures, and religions mandated that men or women be treated differently, then these collectivist social structures had to be combated, since the individual’s free choice was unequivocally more important.

However, in recent years, feminism has also absorbed ideas from movements very different from the enlightenment. Some of the names used to describe this type of feminism 3rd and 4th wave feminism, intersectional feminism, and so on.

Where enlightenment feminism had been universalist and individualistic, many modern feminists regard the whole tradition of the enlightenment as suspicious, exclusively Western, and perhaps even imperialistic. If other cultures have different gender roles, then who are we to say they’re wrong?

In other words, the philosophy inherent in much of modern feminism has more to do with the philosophical responses and counter movements to the enlightenment, than they have to do with the enlightenment. Specifically, much of it is indebted to the philosophy of the romantic era, where it was thought that the individual’s values could not be formularized as a list of abstract rights and ideals, but were deeply rooted in culture, community, and personal identity.

In other words, where the enlightenment was universalist, rational, and impersonal, the philosophy of the romantic era was particularistic, experiential and personal. They are and were two completely different ways of viewing the world.

So where Western feminists used to be unequivocally opposed to traditions, cultures, and religions that stood in the way of their enlightenment values, the picture is now less clear cut. It is not that modern feminists don’t care about the plight of women outside of their own culture and ethnicity, as right-wingers often like to accuse them of being. Rather, it is that modern feminists tend to see the traditions, mores, and religious of individuals belonging to other cultures as vulnerable components of their identity. If these were steamrolled by Western pundits, this might result in an empowered majority culture subjugating a vulnerable minority. In the eyes of many modern feminists, lecturing people of other cultures about what values they should have can very easily border on cultural imperialism and be disempowering to minorities.

This is where the confusion comes in: Prosaically speaking, worrying about steamrolling minority cultures has very little to do with women’s rights and very much to do with an overall agenda of fighting racism, where modern feminists see themselves as the defenders of vulnerable minorities.

This is why leading feminist pundits all over northern Europe were left speechless when 2000 Middle Eastern and North Africa men stage a massed sexual assault on 1200 European women.  Obviously these men were trampling the rights of women underfoot. But they were also part of what many modern feminists perceived as a vulnerable minority culture. They wouldn’t risk being the enablers of cultural imperialism.

In this way we can see how modern feminism is trapped in a contradiction between two philosophical traditions that simply cannot be synthetized. The enlightenment one, that cares about equal rights and is rational, individualistic and universalist. And the romantic one, which places more stress on the personal, the particular, and on protecting minorities from cultural hegemony and imperialism. And this is what we call The Contradiction in Modern Feminism.


Wednesday, November 2nd, 2016

People with the avoidant personality shy away from other people because they are afraid of being criticized or embarrassed, or because they worry that they will appear foolish. Usually avoidants are very concerned that if they are criticized, they will blush or cry in front of other people. They often feel inadequate, which makes them inhibited in social situations. People with the avoidant personality might believe they are so unappealing that no one would want to know them or be friends with them. They will usually refuse to be in a relationship unless they are sure that the other person will like and accept them. To make sure others like them, avoidants are often “eager to please” and hesitant to state their disagreements with others directly. Ironically, people with the avoidant personality often behave in a way that confirms their negative self-image. They are so sensitive to criticism that they often misinterpret innocent comments as negative or critical. When they interact with other people, they may act fearful or tense, and make a mistake, which often prompts others to tease or criticize them. Thus their anxiety becomes self-reinforcing.

Because they are so uncomfortable around other people, avoidants usually have very few or no close friends other than perhaps some in their immediate family. They might be willing to stay in an unhealthy friendship because they believe they aren’t appealing enough to make friends with other people. Furthermore, avoidants are usually distant or restrained in romantic relationships because they are afraid of being made fun of or shamed if they reveal too much about themselves. They fear that if they were to get close to other people then they would see their weaknesses and inadequacies and reject them, so they prefer to not even try. They also avoid jobs where extensive socializing is required. Avoidants rarely seek help from a therapist because they are uncomfortable talking to other people and fear being judged by them.

Because they avoid therapy, it is difficult to estimate the prevalence of avoidants in the population. Research suggests that less than 1 percent of the population are avoidant personalities.

Avoidant personality might sound a lot like schizoid personality, since people with both these personalites are “loners,” but they are different in at least one crucial way. Whereas an “avoidant” is isolated because of hypersensitivity to criticism, shyness, and low self-esteem, someone with the schizoid personality is cold and indifferent to criticism.

Most people use avoidance as a coping strategy at times in their life, especially to relieve anxiety or when faced with difficult life choices or situations. However, a genuine avoidant personality is characterized by pervasive behavioral, emotional, and cognitive avoidance, even when personal goals or wishes are foiled by such avoidance. Cognitive themes that fuel avoidance include self-deprecation, beliefs that unpleasant thoughts or emotions are unmanageable and intolerable, and an assumption that exposure of one’s “real self” to others or assertive self-expression will be met with rejection. People with Avoidant Personality express a desire for affection, acceptance, and friendship, yet frequently have few friends and share little intimacy with others. Their frequent loneliness, sadness, and anxiety in interpersonal relationships are maintained by a fear of rejection, which inhibits the initiation or deepening of relationships.

A typical avoidant believes, “I am socially inept and undesirable.” If someone in their social circle elicits thoughts and uncomfortable feelings stemming from these beliefs, avoidants frequently begin to avoid or “shut down” by changing the topic. Similarly, many avoidants are prone to substance abuse to distract themselves from negative cognitions and emotions.

Antisocial personality

Wednesday, October 19th, 2016

The history of the antisocial personality is long and complex. You may have heard the terms sociopath and psychopath, which are used to refer to individuals who behave violently, aggressively, and selfishly. The media often apply these labels to serial killers. Indeed, the features of the “psychopath” and “sociopath” are similar to the current descriptions of the antisocial style. It is characterized by a persistent and pervasive disregard for the needs and rights of others.

Antisocial personality traits can often be seen already in early childhood, for example, in the form of aggression toward people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness, theft, or the serious violation of rules. In adulthood, antisocial personalities usually continue to engage in behaviors that harm others, and they tend to be indifferent to how their behavior affects other people.

In contrast with other personality styles, most of the features of the antisocial personality are behaviors that can be observed, rather than thoughts or feelings that the therapist must attempt to analyze. Behaviors such as being indifferent to the interests of others, failure to obey the law, harassment, theft, or fraud.

Antisocial individuals are usually deceitful and manipulative and will lie or charm others to obtain money, power, or sex. Lying is a common trait among people with antisocial personality, and antisocial personalities can typically tell lies with ease.

While many antisocials can be devious and charming, and good at manipulating others, the antisocial temperament is at root impulsive. Antisocial personalities can only hold back their true intentions for so long before they have to discharge their pent-up frustration, or chase a new gratification, such as sex, alcohol, gambling, fraud, and so on.

Many antisocials have trouble holding a job, and even antisocials who at first glance appear successful will typically have a resume characterized by lots of different jobs held in quick succession.

The antisocial temperament is irritable and aggressive. Many engage in physical fights and may end up in prison. However, if the antisocial is a high-IQ individual, one will typically see these same tendencies unfold in the domain of interpersonal manipulation instead. The antisocial is still irritable and aggressive, but they use these dark sensations as a catalyst to manipulate and defraud others, rather than fight them with their fists.

Some antisocials also display a marked disregard for their own safety, along with that of others, and may engage in drug abuse, unsafe sex, or reckless driving.

Despite the harm they cause, most antisocials do not feel remorse and guilt. In fact, many are constitutionally incapable of such emotions. They may understand that others regard their actions as deplorable and adjust their demeanor to give the impression that they regret what they have done. But inwardly, they almost never do.

Antisocial individuals are cynical, callous, arrogant, and cocky. Some antisocials are also extremely intelligent and charming. Their combination of charm, recklessness, and indifference to others can create an extremely manipulative and potentially dangerous person and, for reasons that are not fully understood, this charming but dangerous personality can often be extremely attractive to certain women. Whether they be blue-collar brawlers or white-collar fraudsters, many antisocials have scores of female fans and admirers, who often know full well that the antisocial is mad, bad, and dangerous to know.

The antisocial personality is noticeably more common in males than in females, with studies reporting the ratio to be somewhere between one-to-three and one-to-five.

In the history of psychology, most therapists have traditionally regarded antisocial personalities as untreatable. However, not everyone agrees, and some therapists believe they can help antisocial personalities to consider a broader range of actions and consequences before rushing to discharge their frustration. At any rate, almost everyone agrees that the antisocial style is one of the most difficult personalities to treat.

Narcissistic Personalities

Monday, October 17th, 2016

The key theme for narcissistic personalities is “self-aggrandizement.” People with a histrionic personality style want attention from others. People with a narcissistic personality need not only the attention of others, but their admiration as well. However, even though narcissists are extremely concerned with how others view them, they tend to be remarkably self-centered and to do very poorly when it comes to empathizing with the needs, thoughts, and concerns for others.

Narcissists have heightened levels of grandiosity and vanity. In essence, they believe that they are unique and deserve special treatment. Individuals with a narcissistic personality rarely see problems with their own behavior. In many cases, their family and loved ones find them self-absorbed and shameless, but narcissists don’t see themselves this way at all. Entitlement is a key feature of the narcissistic personality, and narcissists can get very angry if they do not get the special treatment that they think that they deserve. Narcissists typically think that they’re above the rules and will often take it personally if someone insists that they’re not. They tend to have beliefs like “if others don’t recognize my special status, I must put them in their place,” or “if I am to maintain my superior status, I must demand others’ subservience.”

In this way, narcissistic personalities almost think of themselves as princes or princesses. They believe that they have a special status that places them above ordinary people. They see themselves as prestigious and as elevated above the average person, while they see others as their vassals and potential admirers. They seek recognition from others to maintain their grandiose self-image and preserve their superior status. A core belief of theirs is: “Since I am special, I deserve special privileges and prerogatives.” On the other hand, when narcissists experience a significant defeat, they are prone to a catastrophic drop in self-esteem. Often, it is very stressful and uncomfortable for the narcissist to have to remain in a situation where they are not admired, and many may give way to aggression, fits of rage, or despair if forced to do so. Their main affect is anger when other people do not accord them the admiration or respect which they believe they are entitled to, or otherwise thwart them or fail to buy into their grandiose façade in some way.

Narcissistic personalities who end up in the role of manager or leader are often unpopular with their subordinates. In positions of power, narcissists are prone to exploiting their employees towards furthering their own wishes and career. Narcissistic bosses often take credit for the work of their subordinates, play favorites, or appear empathetic with the needs and wishes of their employees.

Though narcissists have an easy time manifesting an air of contentment about them, their friendships with others are usually superficial, and deep down many narcissists are actually lonely. Usually, a narcissist will have a hard time forming a friendship or romantic relationship if the other person is not likely to enhance their self-esteem or help them in some way.

The narcissist’s self-centeredness means that they lack an appreciation for other people’s points of view. It is difficult for them to understand that other people might have their own thoughts and feelings and that the narcissist’s well-being is not the most important thing to everyone else.

Pinker’s Blank Slate

Monday, May 9th, 2016

What he’s arguing about is the dominant position among liberal humanities
and social science professors.
A lot of them think that everything evil and unfair comes from capitalism
or is socially constructed. So for example, the media’s preference for young,
slender women is thought to be the cause of why most people think that way.
And if we were born as totally blank slates, that might make sense. Then those
women in the Dove commercials would be just as desirable, and it’s all
just the media’s fault.

So Pinker looks at evidence that the
preference for traits in a made (youth and fitness) that coincide with
fertility is probably at least in part evolutionarily encoded. And the
media is just pandering to a preference that’s already there.
When he wrote the book, at lot of people believed that people were
born as _completely_ blank slates because of the French philosophy
that was so huge at that time said some. Everything was just “socially
constructed” by corporations, people in power, etc. Then he sketches
out some biological traits which are probably inborn. Like, everywhere
in the world, sociallism has failed and free-market capitalism
succeeded. (Most) people are not motivated to work for some abstract
community; they work for themselves and their loved ones.
Since he wrote the book, more people have come around to agree that we
are not _completely_ blank slates. Though they are not as far along
the biological track as Pinker.

So it’s not exactly _information_ that the Blank Slate dispute is
about, but preferences, behaviors, etc.

Think like: If you reversed socialization and culture completely,
could you then make a nation where girls were more violent and
aggressive and boys more communicative and emphatic? Blank Slaters
would say yes; Pinker’ites would say no because boys are on average
predisposed towards such behavior by hormones etc.

So if your position is that we are not born with _information_, then
everyone probably agrees 🙂

On language, he makes some pretty speculative arguments, yes.
For example, he talks about how mice that are born without hearing or
ears are still born with and develop hearing centers in their brains,
as if they had.

His argument is that in the same way, the brain is born with a
disposition for learning language, but of course, that’s pretty hard
to prove. Though he makes the argument that language comes easily to
people, no matter what they do, and reading and writings has to be
learned in schools. Probably because one is evolutionarily primed and
the other is too recent and invention to be worked into the genome
etc. yet. I find that pretty reasonable.

So people couldn’t learn a language with no senses, just as mice
cannot hear with no ears. But in his view, we are born with faculties
in the brain to facilitate things like learning language. So if that’s
right, at least the blank slate view where everything is just the
result of culture and socialization is wrong.

You might think: “But who would even think that?” In the book, he
mentions Judith Butler. People of that kind of conviction all think
that (or at least used to). When I went to university, we were taught
the same thing. It’s all just culture and power and socialization.
They taught that as if it was the deepest thing in the world.

Pinker’s PHD-adviser is famous for the theory that though there are
different languages, the structure is pretty similar in most of them.
He then makes the argument that the brain is born with the facility to
learn these grammatical structures and construct sentences in them.
But *not* the specific languages. I don’t know if I agree with that
theory. The whole language aspect, I think is an example of his own
field of expertise being crammed too much into the book where it
really should have been about gender, race, evolution, etc.

Free MBTI tests in foreign languages

Friday, September 4th, 2015

ESFP – portræt og beskrivelse

Friday, September 4th, 2015

Den optimistiske og energiske spilopmager, som ved lige, hvordan han skal gøre andre i godt humør.

esfp-150x150ESFP’er lever i en verden af ​​menneskelige muligheder. De elsker mennesker og nye oplevelser. De er livlige og elsker at have det sjovt, og de nyder at have spænding og drama i deres liv.

ESFP’er har meget stærke interpersonelle færdigheder og kan ofte finde sig selv i rollen som fredsmægler mellem stridende parter. Da de træffer beslutninger ved hjælp af deres personlige værdier (Følen), er de normalt meget sympatisk indstillede over for andre og bekymrede for deres velbefindende. ESFP’er er som regel ganske generøse og varme. De er meget opmærksomme på andre mennesker og synes at fornemme, hvad der er galt med nogen, før de selv ved det. ESFP’er har en forkærlighed for handling og overrasker af og til ved at reagere med varme og spontanitet og ved at byde ind med en løsning på et praktisk behov.
ESFP-typen er spontan, optimistisk og entusiastisk. De elsker at have det sjovt. Hvis ESFP’er ikke har udviklet deres tænke-side (Tænkning), er der af og til en tendens til, at de bliver lidt skødesløse og lægger mere vægt på øjeblikkelig spænding og tilfredsstillelse end på langsigtede opgaver og forpligtelser.

For ESFP’er er hele verden en scene. De er gode til at underholde andre og gøre dem glade, og de fleste ESFP’er er selv godt bevidste om dette. De elsker mennesker, og en af deres største gaver er deres generelle tolerance og accept af andre. De er optimistiske entusiaster,  som stort set altid er varme og generøse over for mennesker, de møder. ESFP’er vil generelt behandle fremmede som venner, men når en fremmed kommer på tværs af ESFP’en, er ESFP’en dog ikke desto mindre i stand til at afsige en stærk værdidom over den person, der forbrød sig mod ESFP’en. De kan udvise stærk modvilje i sådan en situation og være en fjende, som få vil ønske sig at have.

ESFP: Den tolerante entusiast

ESFP’er er meget praktisk anlagt, men de bryder sig ikke om struktur og rutine. De kan lide at flyde med strømmen, i tillid til at deres evne til at improvisere vil få dem helskindet igennem enhver situation. De lærer bedst via “hands-on” oplevelser fyldt med praktisk erfaring snarere end ved at studere emnet i en bog. Derfor kan ESFP’er også have en tendens til at undgå situationer, der involverer en masse teoretisk sniksnak, eller som er for komplekse og tvetydige. ESFP’er gør sig bedst (faktisk særdeles godt) i situationer, hvor de får lov til at lære ved at interagere med andre eller gennem “learning by doing”.

ESFP’en er en fantastisk holdspiller. Det er ikke sandsynligt, at ESFP’en vil skabe problemer eller ballade, og det er sandsynligt, at vedkommende vil sørge for, at arbejdet foregår i et sjovt miljø, som gør det til en fryd at få opgaven færdig. ESFP’er har det med at gøre sig bedst i en karriere, hvor de er i stand til at bruge deres gode menneskefærdigheder sammen med deres evner til at anvende ideer til at implementere praktiske løsninger. Da de rykker hurtigt og holder af nye oplevelser, bør de vælge en karriere, der tilbyder dem oplevelsesmæssig mangfoldighed såvel som rige muligheder for at interagere med mennesker.

ESFP’er har en enorm kærlighed til livet, og de ved, hvordan man har det sjovt. De kan lide at bringe andre sammen, og det er typisk rigtig sjovt at være sammen med en ESFP. De er fleksible, tilpasningsdygtige og oprigtigt interesserede i andre mennesker. De er godhjertede og har en særlig evne til at få en masse sjov ud af livet.

Hvem deler du type med? Se listen over berømte ESFP’er her.

Emneord: Jungs Typer, Personlighedstyper, Jungianske Typer, Personlighedstests.

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